New paper: European forest fibre and paper industry sets out an innovative, low-emission future for its transport and logistics
In February 2018, the European forest fibre and paper industry presented its 2050 vision to decarbonise its transport and logistics and contribute to the EU’s debate on low-carbon mobility.
We have a supply chain that is quite different from that of other industries and this presents both opportunities and challenges for decarbonisation. Access to raw materials, such as wood from forests and recycled paper from collection points is much more dispersed than in other industries.
We also rely mostly on road, rather than other means of transport. At the same time finished products need to be delivered with short lead times to diverse customers across Europe. It is estimated that in the framework of current policies, technologies and infrastructure a 60% decarbonisation by 2050 is feasible. An additional 20 % reduction, needed to achieve the 80 % reduction objective, is very challenging and would notably require a significant step change in innovation and technologies, as well as in policies for their deployment.
Here are the four pathways we have identified to reach our decarbonisation vision:
• Truck fuel efficiency: at least 30% improvement by 2050
• Fuel shift • Increase in permitted unit loads and digitalisation pathways: an additional 30% reduction
• Supporting policy conditions and infrastructure, most notably environmentally friendly trucking and harmonised EU rules and regulations.
To learn more about how we are pioneering decarbonisation in transport and logistics we encourage you to consult our paper here
Publication | 01 Feb.2018
Decarbonising transport and logistics chains in Europe? Discussion paper
CEPI presented in February 2017 a review of its 2050 roadmap scoping the pathways, transformative investments and policy frameworks required for realising a 80% reduction of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and a 50% growth in the added-value delivered by the forest-fibres and paper industries in Europe. CEPI’s 2050 roadmap takes into account the emissions from the transport and logistics chain of industry. Emissions are estimated at 5 million tonnes of CO2 in 2015, the equivalent to 1.5 billion litres of diesel and accounts for roughly 10% of overall emission in the forest fibre and paper industry. The 2050 roadmap trajectory implies a GHG emissions reduction by 4 million tonnes in the next 35 years.
Such a reduction will be particularly challenging in the highly complex logistics chain of the forest fibre and paper industry. Indeed, raw materials and product deliveries in the European forest fibre and paper industry total approximately 350 million tonnes and cost 7,5 billion euros annually. Furthermore, the raw material supply chains from forests for raw wood and collection points for recycled paper are more scattered than in many other industries and mostly rely on road transport. In addition, finished products need to be delivered with short lead times to final customers across Europe. As a result, transportation represents a significant share in the cost of our final products and cost-efficient logistics are a central topic for forest fibre and paper companies.
Developed by CEPI members’ transport experts, this paper explores the possible pathways for a cost-efficient reduction of the industry transport and logistics chain emission towards 80% by 2050. It is intended to provide a sector specific illustration of the transport decarbonisation challenges and opportunities, which has now become particularly relevant in the context of the European Union’s debate on low-carbon mobility and its recently launched EU Mobility Package initiatives of 31 May and 8 November 2017.
Review of Directive on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain roads
We welcome the European Commission’s intention to create a technically interoperable system in all Member States. However, the introduction of any distance-based road charging measure will inevitably be more costly. Road charging should not result in penalising of the road. It should respect the level playing field between different modes and not disturb the market conditions.
Response to public consultation on access to international road haulage
Short summary: We support a completely free market for transport services in the European Union that can improve industry’s competitiveness. Liability of shippers should be proportionate. Simple cabotage rules allowing the development of today’s complex and international supply chains should be promoted throughout the EU.
Freight Stakeholders call for open dialogue on wagonload services
CEFIC, CEPI, CER, CLECAT, EFIP, ESC, ESPO and UIP have issued a joint paper on wagonload.
According to them, this segment of rail freight is at risk of disappearing. With this paper, the associations would like to recall the urgency of taking action to prevent wagonload services from further declining.
While market-driven solutions are crucial, policy intervention and support is also needed. In this respect, there should be a strong cooperation with Member States, ports, regional and local authorities towards implementing the most appropriate solutions, including best practices.
The associations would like to start an open dialogue on the need to revitalise wagonload services and in particular rail freight at the last mile, recognising that each actor in the supply-chain has the responsibility to consider solutions reflecting the business and meeting the needs of our (end) customers. This document can be read as a starting point for further dialogue and action at policy and operational levels.
CEPI adopts Load Transport guidelines for pulp and paper products
CEPI has just launched a guideline document on general cargo securing instructions for pulp and paper products. The document was produced by CEPI with the input of the CEPI Transport Network and the support of MariTerm AB. CEPI expects the industry to adopt it as a best practice.
The guidelines will help everyone involved in the transport chain (planning, preparation, supervision or control) ensure safe transportation. Valid for transport on road, the guidelines primarily focus on accelerations and forces and cover a wide variety of product types (reels, sheeted paper, etc.). They were based on the European standard EN 12195-1:2010 (load restraining on road vehicles – Safety – Part 1: Calculation of securing forces).
The document is split in two parts, starting with the basic cargo securing principles, such as lashing, sliding and tipping. The second and largest part deals with instructions for pulp and paper products in particular, detailing arrangements necessary to prevent movements sideways and in forward and backward direction.
The European pulp and paper industry continuously promotes a cost-efficient, sustainable and safe transport of its products and raw materials. These guidelines are available to all pulp and paper companies and stakeholders. Versions in various EU languages will soon be available to ensure a wider distribution and a broad implementation by European companies and supply chain partners.
Weight & dimensions’ limits: let’s make the best use of Europe’s roads!
The Directive 96/53/EC on Weights & Dimensions1, which is currently under review, regulates the weights and dimensions of heavy-duty vehicles operating as international and national transport within the EU. Under certain circumstances, and in line with the principle of subsidiarity, the Directive also permits Member States to provide derogations.
Road: the predominant mode of transport for freight today and tomorrow
Trucks dominate inland EU freight transport2 with a 72% share of the tonne-kilometres and account for about 94% of the CO2 emissions. There are currently 6.5 million heavy goods vehicles in circulation in the EU, transporting more than 80% of goods in volume (tonnes) and more than 90% of goods in value.
Road transport is, in general, the most flexible and efficient mode of transport when considering short distances and, for sure, the last miles. This is the only mode of transport that can ensure door-to-door delivery of goods to customers. While all transport modes are needed, the 2011 White Paper on Transport recognises that road transport will continue to be the predominant mode in the future. Road should therefore be considered in a nondiscriminatory way.
The European paper industry makes use of the three basic modes - rail, road and water, but like many industry sectors, road is the main mode of transport for European distribution and it is expected to remain the case in the future. A vast majority of the yearly 250 million tonnes of the paper industry raw materials and finished products is indeed transported by road in Europe. Around 55% of road transport concern long distance trips, 30% regional distance and the remainder local distance. Logistics costs average 10% of turnover.
Future challenges need to be addressed to secure long-term competitiveness and sustainability
The main challenges to be faced by road transport relate to increasing costs, the shortage of drivers across Europe, the growing level of road congestion and the rising level of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG emissions).
Road transport costs have grown over the years because of rising fuel price, road charging and truck drivers working regulations and increasing wages. This impacts the price of raw materials and goods and consequently the overall competitiveness of the industry.
Further cost increases are expected in the coming years due to further internalisation of external costs - to meet stricter emission targets, rising road charging and stricter minimum safety standards. Although road cannot carry everything, the ability of rail and other modes of
transport to help overcome these challenges remains very limited. There is often no affordable and efficient alternative to roads unfortunately.
Significant efficiency gains are possible and can deliver competitiveness and sustainability for shippers and the EU economy
As said in the EU Commission’s White Paper, urgent action is needed to make road transport more resource-efficient and to further integrate the various transport modes to achieve a true Single European Transport Area. Road should have its efficiency pushed to the optimum to deliver its full potential in a sustainable way, i.e. by reducing its GHG emissions and without neglecting road’s safety and security. All opportunities to reduce GHG emissions must therefore be considered.
Smart innovations to improve aerodynamics and reduce fossil fuel consumption and derogations to allow their implementation, as proposed by the EU Commission, are a step in the right direction. However, increasing incrementally the weight and dimensions’ limits and payload of trucks in legislation is one of the most cost-efficient and sustainable solutions.
Trucks weight and dimensions’ limits are one of the main bottlenecks that need to be addressed. 44 tonnes should be considered as a minimum weight limit in all EU Member States.
For international transport, Directive 96/53/EC sets limits to vehicles engaged in international transport to 40 tonnes and 18.75 meter of length, with the exception of intermodal transport where a maximum of 44 tonnes is permitted in a range of 150 km. However, individual Member States can allow higher weight limits on their roads.
The paper industry sector, like chemicals, steel, building, wood and petroleum is affected by weight restrictions because it transports mainly heavy goods. However, dimension restrictions hit also some segments of the paper industry that require high volumes.
Some countries like Germany and Spain apply a 40 tonnes limit for road transport and 44 tonnes limit for intermodal transport. But some others have allowed 44 tonnes for all transports - Belgium, France, Italy, and Luxemburg on 5 axles or United Kingdom on 6 axles. Even higher weight limits prevail with 48-50 tonnes in Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Norway, 60 tonnes on 7 axles in Denmark and 5 axles in Sweden, and even 76 tonnes in Finland on 9 axles. Several years of experience with heavier vehicles on relevant roads in those countries has not revealed any particular safety issues or infrastructure problems.
Allowing longer trucks and trucks able to carry heavier payloads is crucial in the context of the Directive’s revision. Increasing the authorised maximum weight and promoting the European Modular System (EMS) have to be considered since it would result in a decrease of the number of trucks on the road and road freight journeys, while addressing drivers shortages. It would reduce congestion on European roads and transport costs, give a boost to European industry’s competitiveness; and, as important, reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
CEPI supports the EU Commission’s proposal to extend the provision authorising the circulation of 44-tonne combinations of vehicles with 5 or 6 axles transporting 40-foot containers for intermodal transport to those carrying 45-foot containers.
EMS: let subsidiarity and innovation prevail!
The use of EMS should be promoted for relevant infrastructure. It can significantly help accommodate the growth of needed road transport volume by delivering additional loading capacity, higher resource efficiency and fewer trips without increasing risks of accidents, more wear and tear on roads and without major investment in infrastructure. All this has been proven in trials in, amongst other countries, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands, and where the full operation of such modular combinations is already permitted, such as in Sweden and Finland.
CEPI, like many other European and national trade organisations supports the EMS3. The EMS is a concept that allows combinations of existing loading units (vehicles and load modules) into longer and sometime heavier vehicle combinations to be used on some parts of the road network, but obviously not in city centres or any other sensitive areas. Indeed, based on standard modules, it gives high flexibility to operators to adapt the vehicles to different situations, offers the possibility to use long combinations when possible and shorter combinations when necessary, and favours co-modality. As it is based on existing equipment, it is easy to implement and very easy to rearrange to shorter combinations and adapt to local conditions.
EMS already operates in several Member States under certain circumstances and conditions and offers industry a much needed efficiency and a greener alternative to many other current logistics solutions. EMS favours the development of intermodal transport and co-modality and supports the development of other transport modes like rail since it is built on using standard ISO 20 and 40 feet containers common also to rail and maritime freight transport. Allowing longer trucks on the roads would not shift substantial volumes of loads from rail to road as goods transported by road tend to be higher value goods, whilst rail is more suited to lower value goods. Road and rail are indeed complementary modes with limited areas of competition.
Cross-border trips with higher capacity trucks and EMS should be allowed and onlysubject to agreement between the concerned Member States
The Directive’s revision should enable higher weight limits for cross-border trips. Single compartment articulated vehicles with an upper limit of 44 tonnes for road transport (on five axles) and 50 tonnes (on 6 axles) for intermodal operations across Europe should be allowed for instance. Cross-border trips with even higher capacity trucks between two or more neighbouring countries that have the same limits should also be allowed.
By maintaining a weight difference between road transport and intermodal transport for single-compartment vehicles, there is no risk of a reverse modal shift from intermodal to road transport.
Industry is indeed often impacted by the lowest authorised vehicle weight limit on the route, which leads some time to absurd situations. Belgium has a maximum authorised weight of 44 tonnes for five-axle road haulage combinations like France4, but because of the EU Directive, at the border, the weight of the vehicle must be reduced to 40 tonnes. Once it has crossed over into the other country, the weight limit applicable is again 44 tonnes.
Low weight limits lead to additional costs and hinder smooth transport of goods throughout the EU and constitute an obstacle to the well-functioning and the completion of the Single Market. Permitting international transport with higher load deliveries across the EU and discouraging any cross-border barriers that limit its benefits would result in savings for all economic operators and would have a positive impact on energy consumption and the environment.
A recent EU Parliament study5 concludes that cross-border use with EMS vehicles would help at-source greening road transport, steering combined transport and further supporting an efficient EU transport network involving all modes of transport, including road.
The creation of specific corridors for bigger trucks between Member States should be also encouraged.
Industry and shippers’ voice should be heard when considering the review of the Directive 96/53/EC
Competitiveness and sustainability should be the key objectives when considering the review of the Directive 96/53/EC. It should aim at higher efficiency of the road transport to the benefit of the industry and the whole society by keeping our economy moving and enhancing the functioning of the internal market.
The paper industry as well as other industry sectors would benefit from increased weight and dimensions’ limits throughout the EU, with the necessary restriction on axles pressure.
CEPI believes that the authorised maximum weight should be increased as a general rule and, based on extensive trials, the use of EMS promoted. Cross-border trips between Member States where the same weight and dimensions’ limits prevail should be allowed.
Innovation, smart solutions and rationalisation in the transport and logistics field can have a great impact on competitiveness and sustainability and should therefore be promoted, to contribute to the EU 2020 strategy about sustainable growth and jobs and the success of an ambitious industrial policy.
1 COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 96/53/EC, of 25 July 1996, lays down for certain road vehicles circulating within the EU the maximum authorized dimensions of national and international traffic and the maximum authorised weights of international traffic. 2 According to EU Commission statistical pocketbook 2013 (2011 data), the share of intra-EU freight transport is 45.3% for trucks 36.8% for seagoing ships, 11.0% for rail and 3.7% for inland waterways. Road accounts for 71.8% of the EU27 of inland freight transport in billion tonne-km, rail 17.4%, inland waterways 5.8% and pipelines 4.9%. 3 These organisations are members of the EMS Forum: http://www.modularsystem.eu/ 4 Since 1 January 2013, France has increased the statutory limit to 44 tonnes for transport within the French territory. Before 1 January 2013 the limit - with a few exceptions - was 40 tonnes. 5 “THE IMPACT OF MEGATRUCKS” - EU Parliament Transport & Tourism Committee, July 2013.
EMS Cross-Border: let subsidiarity and innovation prevail!
Following the publication of a recent independent report on longer trucks ordered by the Policy Department of the European Parliament, the EMS Forum urges the Members of the European Parliament to support the cross-border trials with and use of EMS vehicles between those Member States that allow their use and trials in their own territory.
The EMS Forum, bringing together industry stakeholders promoting the use of European Modular Concept (EMS) vehicle combinations in the EU, believes that Member States are best placed to decide whether they want to benefit from EMS vehicles or not.
The report concludes that ‘empirical evidence is difficult to find with regards to many of the primary concerns regarding LHVs. As a general rule, where empirical evidence is available, it tends to show better outcomes than those predicted by desk studies, with lower modal shift observed and little evidence of any negative effects on road safety.’
Overall the study concludes that cross-border use with EMS vehicles would help at-source greening road transport and steering combined transport and further support an efficient EU transport network involving all modes of transport, including road.
Last but not least, the 2011 White Paper recognizes that road transport will continue to be the predominant mode in EU freight transport. Hindering transport innovation in road freight transport will not achieve a resource-efficient sustainable EU transport system.
The Organisations saying yes to EMS represent shippers, freight forwarders, transport operators and vehicle manufacturers that are convinced that the modular concept is the right response from the road sector in order to decouple transport from its negative impact on the environment and to improve transport and logistics efficiency. An overview of these supporting organizations and companies can be found at the EMS website: http://www.modularsystem.eu/en/organisations_saying_yes_to_ems/
Revision of Weights & Dimensions - European Shippers' Council Position
Conclusions from the position:
The ESC believes the Directive should be revised having in mind changes that can allow industry to respond to these pressures and in a way that can foster growth and competitiveness in the European transport sector. The ESC’s position includes a series of changes to the Directive, all intended to improve efficiency and environmental standards of the road transport of goods while pursuing the goal of a true Single European Transport Area. The alternatives supported by the ESC would achieve a decrease in the number of road freight journeys and the number of trucks on the road. At the same time they would result in a reduction in the number of drivers needed as well as less congestion on Europe’s roads. Also, and considering the economic crisis faced by Europe, these options would signify a decrease in transport costs while improving European industry’s competitiveness. These suggestions would also mean the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions, following the environmental improvements recognised by the Commission. In conclusion the ESC urges the Commission to engage in a comprehensive dialogue with all stakeholders to find the best ways to implement the necessary changes to the Directive.
To read the full position in pdf format, please click on Download here.
CEPI is a member of the European Shippers’ Council.