Recycling

Recycling
Press Release | 09 Feb.2016

Boosting the Circular Economy: European project to promote separate paper collection launched

IMPACTPapeRec is a European project to further increase the separate collection of paper for recycling and promote appropriate schemes to avoid landfilling and incineration.

• A best practice handbook will be developed to support the different EU regions in the implementation of best collection procedures.


IMPACTPapeRec started on 1 February 2016 for a period of two years and is financed by the European Union Horizon 2020 programme. It has evolved from a commitment on separate paper collection in the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials.


36 experts from eight countries representing research institutes, municipalities, obliged producers, paper industry and NGOs gathered in Valencia, Spain, to kick off the project and plan the activities for the next few months.


The project focuses on countries with below average paper recycling rates such as Bulgaria, Poland and Romania as well as countries where paper from households, small shops and offices is often collected in a commingled stream with other recyclables like in France and the UK. The participants started discussing the existing schemes as well as indicators to define best practice separate collection schemes.


Antonio Dobon from the project coordinator ITENE said: “We are very excited about the start of the project. It comes at a time when the European Commission presented its proposal for a Circular Economy stressing the importance of separate collection. With this project we will work to reach the recycling targets in those territories that are below the average. We will also seek for Paper for Recycling collection practices that allow reach both environmental and economic benefits. For doing so, we will define these best practices and spread them widely in Europe so that other municipalities can adopt them”.

IMPACTPapeRec is a consortium of 19 partners from 8 countries, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria France, Germany, Poland, Romania and Spain. IMPACTPapeRec aims to put Europe at the forefront of paper for recycling (PfR) collection by providing an innovative and common knowledge platform. The innovative approach of the defined participatory strategy is based on the real engagement of the whole paper value chain including research, industry, policies, standards, municipalities and citizens.

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 690182

PARTNERS


For more information:
Ulrich Leberle, CEPI Raw Materials Director, Tel: +32 2 627 4923, u.leberle@cepi.org

The press release is also available in French.
 

 

 

 

 

 

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News | 03 Dec.2015

European paper industry's views on the Circular Economy package

The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) welcomes the long-awaited Circular Economy package that was launched by the European Commission. By recognising the contribution of biomass and bio-based products to the Circular Economy the European Commission now takes into account that circularity in many cases starts with raw materials from renewable sources. CEPI is looking forward to concrete actions in the field of bio-based product in the future. In addition, the European Commission has recognised the importance of ending waste management options that do not create value for Europe. CEPI also believes that the Commission is right in recognising recyclability as waste prevention and in harmonising the method for the calculation of recycling rates to make data more comparable and reliable. The European paper industry, together with its partners in the paper value chain, is about to publish the European Declaration on Paper Recycling committing to a further increase in paper recycling from today’s already high 71,7% paper recycling rate.

Read the full press release here.

Press Release | 02 Dec.2015

European Commission delivers value: Circular Economy package recognises renewability and closes the loop

The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) welcomes the Circular Economy package that was launched by the European Commission today. “Our expectations have been met. This major policy initiative has correctly identified the synergies needed to find real solutions. The package has reached a level of ambition rarely seen in policymaking,” says Marco Mensink, CEPI Director General.


By recognising the contribution of biomass and bio-based products to the Circular Economy the European Commission now takes into account that circularity in many cases starts with raw materials from renewable sources. CEPI is looking forward to concrete actions in the field of bio-based product in the future.


In addition, the European Commission has recognised the importance of ending waste management options that do not create value for Europe.


Marco Mensink says: “It is great to see that the Commission recognises the need for separate collection of paper, providing good quality raw materials. We also appreciate that further limits to landfilling are being put in place”. This is a file where the needs of industry closely align with many other stakeholder positions. The Commission proposes a logical step forward. “A step that should be taken from legislation to reality as soon as possible.”


CEPI also believes that the Commission is right in recognising recyclability as waste prevention and in harmonising the method for the calculation of recycling rates to make data more comparable and reliable. The European paper industry, together with its partners in the paper value chain, is about to publish the European Declaration on Paper Recycling committing to a further increase in paper recycling from today’s already high 71,7% paper recycling rate.


For more information, please contact Annette Requardt at a.requardt@cepi.org, mobile +32 489 84 8950


Note to the Editor
CEPI aisbl - The Confederation of European Paper Industries
The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a Brussels-based non-profit organisation regrouping the European pulp and paper industry and championing industry’s achievements and the benefits of its products. Through its 18 member countries (17 European Union members plus Norway) CEPI represents some 505 pulp, paper and board producing companies across Europe, ranging from small and medium sized companies to multi-nationals, and 920 paper mills. Together they represent 23% of world production.

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Press Release | 01 Dec.2015

The Paper Packaging Industry’s view on the Circular Economy Legislative Package

The Paper Packaging Coordination Group comprises the major European paper and board packaging associations¹ which represent the interests of a wide range of packaging products used in transport, retail and consumer packaging. Paper and board packaging is based on a renewable resource (the forest) and is recyclable. We support the concept of a Circular Economy in which raw materials are sourced from renewable, responsibly managed resources and where possible, recycled after use.

The members of our associations are directly affected by proposals in the Circular Economy legislative package published today, which amend the waste and packaging waste legislation. We will submit our detailed responses to specific proposals when we have had time to study them, but meanwhile we wish to present our joint approach on the major topics which affect us:

1. Recycling targets for paper and board
• Targets should be ambitious and reflect technical and economic realities
• For materials, a clear focus on recycling should be ensured
• Packaging recycling targets should be proportionate between different consumer packaging materials, fairly taking into account each material’s situation, achievements and potential for improvement. High achievement of one packaging material should not compensate for another material’s lower achievement.

2. Need to revise the calculation method before setting new targets
• The method for the calculation of recycling rates should be harmonised, providing clarity and simplification for ease of application
• The “input” method should be the basis of the calculation
• EU requirements for recycling should apply equally to exports of paper for recycling and should be enforced

3. Design of packaging
• Additional mandatory design requirements at national level for packaging will undermine the objectives of the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive (PPWD)

4. Composition of municipal waste
• Retailers should have the freedom to choose the method of collection of their secondary and tertiary packaging waste

5. Minimum requirements for Extended Producer Responsibility
• The scope of EPR and roles and responsibilities of each actor involved in packaging waste management should be clearly defined

6. Landfill and incineration of waste
• Recyclables should not be sent to landfill
• Separate collection of materials should be strengthened
• Incineration of recyclables should be restricted

7. Ecodesign and product design
• The essential requirements in the PPWD and related CEN standards are sufficient to provide guidance for ecodesign of packaging
• Packaging should serve the functionality and the safety of the product first
• Packaging should not be seen in isolation from the product
• Ecodesign concepts as part of a product’s design, should encompass the whole life cycle of the product with its packaging

8. Renewability of material resources
• Renewability of material resources is a natural driver for circularity and should be an essential element of a Circular Economy

We particularly welcome the consideration of the role of the bioeconomy in Circular Economy thinking, as we have strongly advocated that sustainable, natural, renewable resources play an essential role in completing the loop of a Circular Economy.

For further information please read the Paper Packaging Coordination Group’s position paper on the Circular Economy package: http://www.cepi.org/positionpaper/PPCGcirculareconomy

 
¹Currently the following organisations participate in the Paper Packaging Coordination Group:

CEPI, Confederation of European Paper Industries
CEPI Containerboard, European industry association of producers of corrugated case materials
CITPA, International Confederation of Paper & Board Converters
ACE, The Alliance for Beverage Cartons and the Environment
ECMA, European Carton Makers Association
EMBALPACK, European Association of Makers of Packaging Papers
EMFA, European Moulded Fibre Association
CEPI EUROKRAFT, European Producers of Sack Kraft Paper and Kraft Paper
EUROSAC, European Federation of Multiwall Paper Sack Manufacturers
FEFCO, European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers
PRO CARTON, European Association of Carton and Cartonboard Manufacturers
 

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Publication | 22 Oct.2015

ERPC Monitoring Report 2014

Summary:

Since 2000, the European paper value chain has been committed to the two-fold aim of increasing recycling and joining efforts to remove obstacles hampering paper recycling in Europe. Consequently, today’s situation is transformed relative to what we experienced 15 years ago.

In 2014, 71.7% of all paper consumed in Europe was recycled, totalling 58 million tonnes. Compared to the previous year, that represents an increase of 0.7%. Paper consumption has increased by the slightly higher figure of 1.2% compared to 2013, reaching 81 million tonnes. Currently, 22% of paper consumption cannot be collected or recycled. We are clearly nearing maximum potential.

This situation is also linked to changing consumption patterns affecting the most recycled paper products. We have seen the continued decline of newspaper consumption in 2014. At the same time, the increased consumption of corrugated boxes has only partly compensated the challenge of declining graphic paper consumption for the overall recycling rate.

In 2014, we have also seen good achievements at the regional level, despite differences continuing to exist. The number of countries with recycling rates below 60% has
decreased, while the number of countries with a recycling rate above 70% has increased, compared to last year.

On an international level, Europe continues to be the world leader in paper recycling, followed by North America. Other world regions’ paper recycling rates have also improved, but starting from lower levels. In Europe, paper fibres have 3.5 loops on average, far above the global average of 2.4.

The paper fibre loop offers the current EU-level discussions on the circular economy a clear and workable model to be followed. Paper recycling is an industry “Made in Europe”. It prolongs value chains and creates green European jobs based on a renewable resource.

CEPI is a Signatory Member of the ERPC.

ERPC website: www.paperforrecycling.eu

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News | 15 Oct.2015

Polish primary school and Finnish university win 2015 paper recycling awards

Yesterday, the European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) announced the winners of the fifth European Paper Recycling awards. The well-attended ceremony took place at the European Parliament and was hosted by MEP Eva Kaili who is also head of the Greek S&D delegation.


The winner of the Technology Improvement and R&D category was Aalto University and VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) with a new, innovative process for turning paper for recycling and cardboard into textile fibres called Ioncell-F.


Although producing textile fibres from cellulosic material is nothing new, the process submitted by Aalto University and VTT is innovative in two ways. Firstly, it allows for the production of fibres of quality equal or better than those deriving from similar processes. Their high strength also renders the fibres suitable as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Secondly, the process makes it possible to use lignin as a natural textile dye.


The Ioncell-F process is based on the use of a so-called ionic liquid to dissolve cellulosic waste material without the addition of toxic chemicals and spin fibres for the production of textiles and garments. “We’re happy to see this environmentally-friendly process already attracting considerable interest, even though it is still in a developmental phase”, said Michael Hummel, Postdoctoral researcher at Aalto University.


The winner of the Information and Education category was the Literatura za Makulature (Literature for Paper for Recycling) project, submitted by a primary school in the Tychy region of Poland. In order to encourage children to get involved in paper recycling, the school invited famous Polish authors to meet its pupils, paying for their participation with money raised from selling the paper for recycling brought to school by the children. The initiative is unique not only in Tychy but in Poland.
In his speech ERPC Chairman Henri Vermeulen stressed the role of the recycling awards. “It is our pleasure to highlight and reward innovative paper recycling projects coming from education institutions. Initiatives like these prove that the paper industry is already the perfect example of a circular economy”, he added.


Five more entries were commended by the jury: Ecofolio for their project ‘The Modulated Eco-Contribution Scale’, Papierenkarton.nlz o.o. for their ‘Papier & Karton Educational Programme’ (Information and Education category); PTS Papiertechnische Stiftung for ‘Advanced treatment of recycled pulp by use of hydrodynamic cavitation pulses’, Alucha & SCA Hygiene Products for ‘REFILLS (Recovering of Energy and FILLers from Sludge)’ and Kadant International for ‘Polycup recycling at James Cropper speciality papers’ (Technology Improvement and R&D category).


Photos from the awards and presentations given by the winners are available at www.paperforrecycling.eu/recycling-awards. The next edition of the ERPC recycling awards will be organised in 2017. For more information, please contact the ERPC Secretariat, Ulrich Leberle, at +32 2 627 49 23, +32 479 90 59 21 or erpc@cepi.org.

 

News | 15 Oct.2015

Polish primary school and Finnish university win 2015 paper recycling awards

Yesterday, the European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) announced the winners of the fifth European Paper Recycling awards. The well-attended ceremony took place at the European Parliament and was hosted by MEP Eva Kaili who is also head of the Greek S&D delegation.


The winner of the Technology Improvement and R&D category was Aalto University and VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) with a new, innovative process for turning paper for recycling and cardboard into textile fibres called Ioncell-F.


Although producing textile fibres from cellulosic material is nothing new, the process submitted by Aalto University and VTT is innovative in two ways. Firstly, it allows for the production of fibres of quality equal or better than those deriving from similar processes. Their high strength also renders the fibres suitable as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Secondly, the process makes it possible to use lignin as a natural textile dye.

The winner of the Information and Education category was the Literatura za Makulature (Literature for Paper for Recycling) project, submitted by a primary school in the Tychy region of Poland. In order to encourage children to get involved in paper recycling, the school invited famous Polish authors to meet its pupils, paying for their participation with money raised from selling the paper for recycling brought to school by the children. The initiative is unique not only in Tychy but in Poland.


Five more entries were commended by the jury: Ecofolio for their project ‘The Modulated Eco-Contribution Scale’, Papierenkarton.nlz o.o. for their ‘Papier & Karton Educational Programme’ (Information and Education category); PTS Papiertechnische Stiftung for ‘Advanced treatment of recycled pulp by use of hydrodynamic cavitation pulses’, Alucha & SCA Hygiene Products for ‘REFILLS (Recovering of Energy and FILLers from Sludge)’ and Kadant International for ‘Polycup recycling at James Cropper speciality papers’ (Technology Improvement and R&D category).

More information:

  1. Press release announcing the winners
  2. Photos of the winners (more are coming soon!)
  3. Short description of the winners and commended entries



 

Position paper | 17 Aug.2015

CEPI's response to public consultation on the Circular Economy

CEPI replied to the European Commission's public consultation on the circular economy in July. 

Background (from the Commission website): In December 2014, the Commission announced the withdrawal of its legislative proposal for the review of waste legislation, to be replaced by a new, more ambitious, initiative for the promotion of the circular economy by the end of 2015.
This initiative aims at promoting the transition to the circular economy through a comprehensive, coherent approach that fully reflects interactions and interdependence along the whole value chain, rather than focusing exclusively on one part of the economic cycle. It will comprise a revised legislative proposal on waste and a Communication setting out an action plan on the circular economy for the rest of this Commission’s term of office. The action plan will cover the whole value chain, and focus on concrete measures with clear EU added value, aiming at ‘closing the loop’ of the circular economy. The circular economy initiative will also contribute to wider EU objectives such as the Energy Union, the climate objectives and resource efficiency.
 

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Press Release | 13 Jul.2015

European paper and beverage carton industries welcome European Parliament’s views on renewable and recyclable materials

European paper and beverage carton industries welcome European Parliament’s views on renewable and recyclable materials

On Thursday 9 July, the European Parliament gave a clear message to the European Commission to address crucial issues in an ambitious circular economy package. These include ending the landfill and incineration of recyclable waste, applying mandatory separate collection schemes and making the bio-economy an integral part of the circular economy.

The European paper and beverage carton industries have called upon the European Commission for a long time to support the industry’s efforts in further improving recycling, but also to extend the scope of the circular economy package from reducing waste to including measures that foster responsible sourcing of raw materials and particularly promote the use of responsibly sourced renewable materials.

Marco Mensink, CEPI Director General says: “The European Parliament has now given a clear mandate for making the bio-economy an integral part of the circular economy. Renewability is nature’s way of circularity, clearly recognized by MEPs in their vote.”

Bertil Heerink, ACE Director General adds: “A well-functioning circular economy will benefit from an increased use of renewable resources. We therefore welcome Thursday’s vote that underlines the importance of shifting from finite to renewable resources. We are looking forward to a constructive dialogue with the European Parliament on all topics related to the circular economy.”


Note to the Editor

CEPI aisbl - The Confederation of European Paper Industries
CEPI is a Brussels-based non-profit organisation regrouping the European pulp and paper industry and championing industry’s achievements and the benefits of its products. Through its 18 member countries (17 European Union members plus Norway) CEPI represents some 515 pulp, paper and board producing companies across Europe, ranging from small and medium sized companies to multi-nationals, and 940 paper mills. Together they represent 23% of world production.
For more information please visit: http://www.cepi.org/

ACE aisbl - The Alliance for Beverage Cartons and the Environment
ACE provides a European platform for beverage carton manufacturers Tetra Pak, SIG Combibloc and Elopak and their paperboard suppliers in Europe Stora Enso and BillerudKorsnäs to benchmark and profile cartons as renewable, recyclable and low carbon packaging solutions. Engaging with stakeholders and partners seeking high environmental stewardship, it contributes expertise to EU policy, legislation and standard‐setting.
For more information please visit: http://www.beveragecarton.eu

For further information please contact:
CEPI: ULRICH LEBERLE, RAW MATERIALS DIRECTOR
TEL +32 (0)2 627 49 23 • u.leberle@cepi.org
ACE: MAJA DRČA, POLICY AND COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANT
TEL +32 (0)2 504 07 12 • maja.drca@beveragecarton.eu


 

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News | 08 May.2015

Global Forest and Paper Industry Releases Policy Statement on Paper Recycling

The International Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA) released its policy statement on paper recycling. The statement was approved at the ICFPA’s annual meeting held on May 5th in Washington, D.C.

The full statement is available at http://www.icfpa.org/uploads/Modules/Publications/icfpa-statement-on-paper-recycling.pdf.

“Forest and paper associations around the world recognize the importance of paper recovery for recycling,” said outgoing ICFPA President Donna Harman. “With this policy statement, we are encouraging national governments to pursue best practices to enable recovered fiber to find its highest end-use.”

The global paper recycling rate stands at about 58%. Some developed countries have achieved as high as 70 to 75%. Many developing countries are establishing infrastructure to help improve paper recycling rates.

The statement calls for educating citizens on the importance of recycling, allowing the marketplace to determine recovered fiber’s best end-use, and ensuring functioning waste markets while respecting national contexts and systems. The ICFPA believes that extended producer responsibility (EPR) systems “should not be a preferred choice where existing markets for collections and reuse of recovered paper are efficient and effective.” Instead, improved sorting of waste should be prioritized to increase and ensure the quality of recovered fiber.

The ICFPA’s statement is the latest in a series of policy statements underwritten by its members associations. All ICFPA policy statements are available at icfpa.org/resource-centre/statements.

The ICFPA represents more than 30 national and regional forest and paper associations around the world. Together, ICFPA members represent over 90 percent of global paper production and half of global wood production.

For more information about the sustainability of the global forest and paper industry, visit icfpa.org.
 

News | 14 Apr.2015

5th European Paper Recycling Awards call for candidates is open!

The European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) launched a call for candidates for the 2015 European Paper Recycling Awards. The awards will identify projects, initiatives and campaigns that contribute to Europe’s sustainability through activities supporting paper recycling. Winners will be announced at the official awards ceremony taking place at the European Parliament on 14 October.

Now in their fifth edition, the awards are open to all entities based in Europe, including schools and universities, NGOs, national and regional authorities, companies and associations.

Read the press release here.

To apply, please visit the ERPC website at www.paperforrecycling.eu

News | 16 Jan.2015

Henri Vermeulen takes on ERPC chairmanship

The European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) has announced the appointment of Henri Vermeulen as chairman, taking over from Beatrice Klose (Intergraf). Mr Vermeulen is Vice President Paper for Recycling of the Smurfit Kappa Group and represents CEPI in the EPRC. His ERPC chairmanship began on 1 January 2015 and he will remain in this position until the end of 2016.

The ERPC was set up as an industry self-initiative in November 2000 to monitor the progress towards meeting the paper recycling targets set out in the 2000 European Declaration on Paper Recycling. In 2011, the ERPC committed itself to meeting and maintaining both the voluntary recycling target of 70% in the EU-27 plus Switzerland and Norway by 2015 as well as qualitative targets in areas such as waste prevention, ecodesign, and research and development.

Read the full press release on the ERPC website at: http://www.paperforrecycling.eu/newsmanager/96/79/Henri-Vermeulen-takes-on-ERPC-chairmanship/

For more information, please contact the ERPC Secretariat, Ulrich Leberle, at +32 2 627 49 23, erpc@cepi.org.

Press Release | 28 Nov.2014

World Economic Forum Project on the Circular Economy to Include EcoDesign Pilot from CEPI

Paper will show the way for other materials in ecodesign

The World Economic Forum’s project on the circular economy (Project MainStream) has chosen the Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) to contribute to one of the project’s three pilots for advancing circular thinking.

“An excellent track record, the right mindset of wanting to continuously raise the bar and world class knowledge in recycling were the reasons for which Project MainStream chose the CEPI pilot as a contibutor”, says Johnson Yeh, Head of Circular Economy Initiatives at the World Economic Forum.

The pilot’s objective is to consolidate existing pieces of design tools into a set of user-friendly, universal ecodesign rules for all value added elements of the paper and board value chain. The pilot, running from January 2015 for 12 months, intends to create a self-enforcing mechanism of speedy adoption of new ecodesign rules, thanks to commitments by businesses.

The World Economic Forum’s Project MainStream was launched in January this year, during the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos.The project will enable annual savings of up to $10bn for the value chain, according to World Economic Forum estimations.

“Paper is a perfect place for Project MainStream to start, given paper’s currently high recycling rate and complete infrastructure for recycling. By establishing proof-of-concept with ecodesign rules for paper, the same lesson can be applied to other materials,” says Yeh.

Although originally 100% recyclable, paper is converted by many downstream industries adding auxiliary materials, such as tapes, adhesives and printing inks. These materials will later return to paper recycling mills when closing the loop, as they cannot be sorted from paper in the dry-sorting steps before they reach paper mills. “Simple ecodesign rules for paper products would give the essential guidance for designers and developers without limiting innovation and hampering the introduction of new techniques. This would be a system-level approach, identifying the root cause and preventing problems”, says Jori Ringman, Sustainability Director at CEPI.

The goal of a circular economy is to move towards a resource efficient use of materials throughout the life cycle, beyond production and consumption. In a circular economy, collected waste and by-products become new raw materials. Whereas the European paper industry has already achieved very high recycling rates of 72%, a more systemic approach supported by ecodesign will allow further improvement of the performance in the sector. “Ecodesign could reduce the overall fibre need as well as improve the safe recycling of fibres, while improving opportunities for reusing water and by-streams of the paper and paperboard process in industrial symbiosis”, says Ringman.

The proposed project is also linked to other global sustainability initiatives, notably Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and to Sound Material Management (SMM) policies.

For more information, please contact Jori Ringman at j.ringman@cepi.org, mobile: +32 478 255 070.

Note to the Editor

CEPI aisbl - The Confederation of European Paper Industries
The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a Brussels-based non-profit organisation regrouping the European pulp and paper industry and championing industry’s achievements and the benefits of its products. Through its 18 member countries (17 European Union members plus Norway) CEPI represents some 515 pulp, paper and board producing companies across Europe, ranging from small and medium sized companies to multi-nationals, and 940 paper mills. Together they represent 23% of world production.

Video on the circular economy by CEPI: http://youtu.be/lt3aHXs7FYM

Project MainStream is a collaboration led by the World Economic Forum and Ellen MacArthur Foundation, with McKinsey & Company as knowledge partners: http://www.weforum.org/projects/circular-economy


 

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Position paper | 28 Nov.2014

CEPI welcomes Commission intentions for meaningful recycling in Europe and identifies enabling measures for meeting ambitious targets

UPDATE: The Commission has recently announced the withdrawal of the waste targets review and will publish a new proposal in the course of 2015.

Comments by CEPI on the European Commission proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL amending Directives 2008/98/EC on waste, 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste, 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste, 2000/53/EC on end-of-life vehicles, 2006/66/EC on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators, and 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment /* COM/2014/0397 final - 2014/0201 (COD)

Summary

• Recycling Targets must be ambitious but realistic to increase collection in an environment where some Member States have already reached high recycling rates. Member States should set their target for paper packaging recycling at a minimum of 80% by 2020.
• Packaging Recycling targets in Europe should not discriminate between the different consumer packaging materials
• The proposed methodology to calculate recycling rates can favour high quality recycling but it should refer to material specific standards or similar quality assurances. For paper, the input method should continue to apply under strict input quality criteria, including for exports
• Incineration restrictions and separate paper collection obligations are needed as complementary measures to ensure recyclable paper diverted from landfills gets actually recycled.
• Final recycling must be clearly defined to ensure targets are meaningful and can be compared between Member States.

Recycling Targets: Minimum targets for Paper Packaging Recycling Rates should be set at 80% by 2020 in all Member States


European Paper Industry is a world champion in recycling, but reaching new targets will be increasingly challenging as several Member States have already reached recycling rates close to the theoretical potential of paper recycling. The average European Paper Recycling rate was 71,7% in 2013 and the sector has set a target of 70% recycling rate by 2015. The recycling rate has increased significantly from levels around 40% in 1990 and 62% in 2005, but has started levelling up since the last five years. As we reach the absolute potentials of paper recycling in some Member States, setting ambitious targets in all Member States is crucial to further stipulate recycling in less than average performing countries. Too ambitious average targets alone will however not be sufficient to reach the objectives set out in the circular economy communication. Further improvement of the paper and board packaging recycling rate will largely depend on progress in less than average performing countries. CEPI therefore proposes that all Member States set their target for paper packaging recycling at a minimum of 80% by 2020. Concrete targets for 2025 and 2030 should be set once the performance based on the proposed methodology and progress towards 2020 targets is assessed, e.g. through the newly proposed early warning system.
Recycling targets in Europe should not discriminate between consumer packaging materials and one material should not compensate for others in a Member State’s calculation of all packaging waste prepared for re-use and recycled. Recyclability and the recycling performance have increasingly become key aspects in the competition between consumer packaging materials.


Calculation Methodology : for paper, the input method should continue to apply under strict input quality criteria
CEPI welcomes the Commission’s intention to set the focus on high quality recycling. The recycling process can only deliver efficiently produced high quality recycled products if the input to this final recycling process fulfills strict quality requirements, too. The Commission proposal rightly distinguishes between final recycling processes with « clean » input material, for which the input method would continue to be applied, and final recycling processes with lesser quality material, for which the output method would have to be applied. CEPI understands the proposed discarded materials as non-target material that is not part of the original product and can be separated in dry sorting.
In the production of recycled paper, the input material for the recycling process is covered by a European Standard (EN 643). This standard sets limits on the share of non-paper components generally not exceeding 1,5%. CEPI is therefore of the opinion that for paper, the input method should continue to apply. However, the Commission proposal leaves too much room for interpretation and should refer to European Standards or similar quality assurances.
Paper for Recycling exported outside the European Union should count towards the recycling rate provided it meets the EN 643 standard and is effectively recycled outside Europe at broadly equivalent environmental conditions as in the EU. This should be demonstrated by a certification scheme as it is being considered by the European Commission and which would include in its scope the reprocessing site in the destination country and ensure traceability through adequate documentation.
Furthermore, it is of great importance that the denominator for the calculation of the recycling rates is identical in all Member States to allow for comparison.

Complementary measures to reach recycling targets
To reach high recycling targets based on the proposed new methodology, complementary measures next to the introduction of a landfill ban are however essential:


Incineration restrictions
CEPI welcomes the introduction of a landfill ban for recyclable waste. However, CEPI thinks that formulating a landfill ban for recyclable material and high recycling targets is not sufficient to reach the objectives. CEPI therefore thinks it is needed to formulate incineration restrictions for recyclable material from the municipal waste stream. This is to avoid waste is only shifted one step up in the waste hierarchy. In the past, several Member States have set the focus on diversion from landfill. This has partly led to low quality collection systems, which would not be able to deliver the input quality to recycling processes according to the new methodology as suggested bythe Commission proposal.

Obligation to collect paper separately from other recyclables and residual waste
To ensure reaching the required quality input for paper recycling processes, paper should be collected separately from other recyclables such as plastics, metal and glass, and from residual waste. The Waste Directive of 2008 has formulated a separate collection target in 2008, however Member States have interpreted this requirement in different ways. CEPI therefore urges the Commission to reinforce the requirement on separate collection for paper. Separate collection is crucial to achieve the landfill restrictions proposed by the commission.


Current recycling definition is too vague
The current definition of recycling is too vague, as it includes next to “reprocessing” also “any other recovery operations”. This leads to a wide range of interpretations, including on the recycling rate, between countries and materials. The only way to ensure material that has been discarded is effectively back in the circular economy is to make sure it is not recognized recycled unless it is reprocessed in a production process into new products, materials or substances that have comparable properties to the corresponding virgin raw materials. The proposed methodology for high quality recycling cannot be reached without a precise recycling definition. Article 3 (17) of directive 2008/98/EC should be amended as follows :


• ‘recycling’ means any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. It includes the reprocessing of organic material but does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operations; ‘final recycling’ means reprocessing in a production process of waste or materials reclaimed from waste into products, materials or substances with similar properties as the equivalent virgin raw material based product, material or substance. It excludes pre-processing.


Next to these measures, CEPI has the following comments on the Commission proposal:
Extended Producer Responsibility : CEPI believes that the proposed provisions of Annex VII paragraph 6.1 and 6.4 place disproportionate financial burden on producers and cover aspects beyond the producers’ control. Putting the burden of « financial contributions to cover the entire cost of waste management… » would act as a disincentive for other actors with roles and responsibilities in the waste collection and sorting chain to focus on cost efficiency. Consequently the competitiveness of European economy would be harmed. CEPI believes that extended producer responsibility should not allow overlapping and duplicating payments: fees should only apply in absence of action when responsibility is delegated to compliance schemes, and fees should be charged on the basis of true cost after the deduction of all fees and revenues related to the waste generated. CEPI also believes Annex VII concerning minimum requirements for EPR should not be amended through the adoption of delegated acts since they are an essential part of the legislation.
Renewability : CEPI is concerned that the Commission published a proposal on the circular economy without mentioning renewability. CEPI believes that the contribution of renewable materials and products to the circular economy should be acknowledged, e.g. by adding renewability to the packaging eco-design options for Member States consideration. CEPI believes that such a non-binding list of ecodesign options is preferred over national packaging design requirements as proposed by the Commission as the latter would undermine the single market by producing barriers to trade.
Definition of Municipal Waste : The definition of municipal waste should not include material from the retail sector. The collection of waste from the retail sector is already well organised. Including the retail sector would divert the focus from the challenge of improving the waste collection from households and small shops.


For more information, please contact Ulrich Leberle at u.leberle@cepi.org, mobile +32 479 905 921

 

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Publication | 28 Nov.2014

Best practice specifications for tendering the collection of Paper for Recycling

The new EU directives on public procurement and concessions entered into force in April 2014. Public contracts that are covered by the European directives are valued at around €420 billion, making them a key driver of our economy.


The new rules are interesting for businesses, with the award criteria emphasising quality, environmental considerations, social aspects and innovation. They make it easier for small and medium-sized firms to bid and include tougher rules on subcontracting.


The adoption of the new directives on public procurement and concessions constitutes a large shift in procurement, as the new rules might open up new opportunities in the Single market. It is now up to all the users, including businesses, to take advantage of the new rules.


For paper recycling in particular, the change of the legal framework could help form a new tendering culture for waste collection in the member states. More specifically, the possibility to introduce criteria of the most economically-advantageous tender instead of the best price improves the functioning of the internal market. This new process gives the tendering authority the possibility to negotiate and incorporate elements that would otherwise be overlooked.


This Best Practice publication, as well as the free calculation tool for collection target benchmarking are examples of how national or regional competent authorities can all ensure that the new rules are put in practice and start contributing to a more transparent, efficient and professional public procurement. These elements are all vital in relaunching growth in the Single Market.

The brochure also exists in Italian.  Donwload it here

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Press Release | 04 Jul.2014

Joint press release: Adoption of the EU Circular Economy Package highlights the need to shift focus from waste to resource management

On the occasion of the adoption of the EU Circular Economy Package (“Towards a circular economy: A zero waste programme for Europe”) by the European Commission, four EU recycling industries are committing to work together and pursue the common goal of promoting circular economy.


The four recycling industries include the Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI), the EU Non-ferrous Metals Industry Association (Eurometaux), Plastics Recyclers Europe (PRE) and the Groupement Européen de l'Industrie de la Régénération (GEIR). The four industries welcome a number of proposals included in the package such as: the progressive landfill ban on recyclable waste, better reporting of data, new requirements on waste exports to fight against illegal shipments of waste, the link between innovation and ambitious recycling targets.


While the Package is a right step forward in promoting recycling, the four recycling industries believe that a number of elements included in the package require further clarification:


- The proposed definition of recycling is too broad; it can create confusion with collection, sorting or pre-processing, while it should be clearly defined to favour high quality processing/recovery of materials so as to contribute to resource efficiency and a sustainable access to valuable materials. The absence of a robust recycling definition can lead to recycling targets miscalculation. The proposed change in the methodology to calculate recycling rates should serve ambitious targets but also consider industrial reality.


- The reference to high quality recycling, while very valuable, focuses too much on quantity and not enough supporting higher quality collection, sorting and recycling of the various types of materials. A more product centric approach to recycling which considers the entity of raw materials in specific product groups is recommended.


- End of waste status: the concept of quality treatment and recycling should be applied here too. If waste reaching end-of-waste status is simply exported outside the EU with no guarantee of quality treatment, the status will not contribute to the EU circular economy.


- Ambitious collection and recycling targets can be an important driver for increasing recycling levels. As an example, for waste oils, EU-wide recycling and collection targets should be introduced. Re-refining waste oils to base oils contributes to the EU circular economy and is a technically feasible way to manage this hazardous waste stream.


Note to the editor:
The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a Brussels-based non-profit making organisation regrouping the European pulp and paper industry and championing this industry’s achievements and the benefits of its products. Its mission is to promote the members’ business sector by taking specific actions notably, by monitoring and analysing activities and initiatives in the areas of industry, environment, energy, forestry, recycling, fiscal policies and competitiveness in general. Through CEPI, the paper industry increases its visibility and acts on emerging issues, making expert and constructive contributions on behalf of the industry.
Website: www.cepi.org


Eurometaux is the Brussels-based EU association of the non-ferrous metals industry, representing the main EU and international metals producers, EU and international metal commodity groups and national metal federations. The industry covers base metals (Al, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Sn), precious metals (Au, Ag, PGM´s) and technical metals (e.g. Co, W, Cr, Mo, Mn), manufactured from both virgin and recycled raw materials.
Website: www.eurometaux.be


Plastics Recyclers Europe (PRE) promotes plastics recycling and creates conditions that enable profitable & sustainable business while offering a service platform to its members. Currently Plastics Recyclers Europe has more than 115 members from all over the EU which are recycling more than 2.5 million tones of plastics waste.
Website: www.plasticsrecyclers.eu


GEIR (Groupement Européen de l'Industrie de la Régénération) is the European Re-refining Industry association. Used lubricating oils represent the largest amount of liquid, non-aqueous hazardous waste in the world. Today the European waste oil recycling industry is comprised of 28 plants and employs between 1000-1200 in re-refining and 2000-2500 people in the collection of waste oil. Seventeen of the plants produce base oils. The industry has a total nameplate capacity of 1.300.000 tonnes/year, total lube oil production of 400.000t/y and produces 500.000 t/y of other products including fuels, asphalt, gasoil, flux oil etc. It has an approximate total turnover of between € 200-250 million/year.
Website: www.geir-rerefining.org

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Press Release | 02 Jul.2014

Landfill ban for recyclables is a step forward…

…but the Circular Economy Package misses six essential points

Today the European Commission adopted the EU Circular Economy Package (“Towards a circular economy: A zero waste programme for Europe). The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) welcomes the inclusion of landfill bans for recyclables by the Commission, but regrets that the package omits six essential points including incineration restrictions.

1. Still no restriction on incineration of recyclable paper
CEPI welcomes the fact that the Circular Economy Package includes landfill restrictions for recyclables as of 2025, but regrets that incineration for the same materials is not restricted. Despite the existing capacity for reprocessing paper in Europe up to 10 million tonnes of paper is currently being landfilled or incinerated in Europe.

2. Targets based on robust data and robust methods
CEPI is concerned about the way the Commission sets new recycling targets and a new calculation method without having tested them on current recycling performances first. Recycling targets in Europe should not discriminate between competing materials and the level of ambition for recycling targets needs to be set realistically.

“The new recycling targets are based on the best performing EU member states although recycling rates from these states are not comparable. Current calculation methods for recycling vary between countries.” explains Jori Ringman, CEPI Recycling, Product and Environment Director.

3. Collection targets
The paper industry calls for EU-wide minimum collection targets for recyclable materials to support high recycling and re-use targets in Europe. As EU legislation already obliges EU member states to collect at least paper, metal, plastic and glass separately by 2015, collection targets would provide an incentive to fulfil this requirement and secure a constant supply of raw materials for the European economy.

4. Recycling based on proximity
The Circular Economy Package should include a proximity principle to ensure that recycling will take place as close as possible to the consumption and collection points in Europe. This will enhance the circular economy by guaranteeing a faster recycling cycle and delivering more value with less input.

5. Recycling ‘Made in Europe’
To advance the circular economy, the definition of recycling in Europe needs to be revised. At the moment, the definition is vague and does not support good quality data collection nor reprocessing of materials.

6. A stronger focus on renewability
In nature, circularity equals renewability. The European paper industry regrets that the Commission does not acknowledge renewability of materials as a solution for the circular economy.

As the European paper industry is based on renewable raw materials and accomplished a world record paper recycling rate of almost 72% in 2013, it is at the core of the circular economy.

* END *

For more information, please contact CEPI Recycling, Product and Environment Director Jori Ringman at (j.ringman-beck@cepi.org), mobile: +32 478 255 070


Note

European Commission Circular economy package: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm

CEPI aisbl - The Confederation of European Paper Industries
The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a Brussels-based non-profit organisation regrouping the European pulp and paper industry and championing industry’s achievements and the benefits of its products. Through its 18 member countries (17 European Union members plus Norway) CEPI represents some 515 pulp, paper and board producing companies across Europe, ranging from small and medium sized companies to multi-nationals, and 780 paper mills. Together they represent 23% of world production.

 


 

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Press Release | 30 Jun.2014

Improving paper recycling in Poland – preparing for the circular economy

Organisations involved in paper recycling discuss European best practices

Experts on paper recycling met on 24 June in the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw. The conference focused on European best practices aimed at improving local selective collection and paper recycling performances.


More than 80 top paper recycling professionals followed the invitation from the IMPACT project group to attend the Conference entitled ‘Circular Economy – How to improve paper collection in Poland?’ on 24 June in Warsaw, Poland. The conference was followed by a visit to the newly opened Stora Enso Ostroleka mill the next day, to show paper making hands on.


SPP - the Association of Polish Papermakers was represented by their Director General Mr Zbigniew Fornalski. He expressed the hope that “this conference will kick-off a more permanent dialogue between all Polish municipalities, waste management companies and paper makers to make the best use of our available raw materials and properly prepare Poland for the circular economy”.


Jolanta Krzywiec, Director of Municipal Waste Management in the Department of Warsaw, introduced the new waste management system in Warsaw. “The municipality in Warsaw is doing their utmost to improve paper collection and ensuring a constant high quality level of this valuable raw material for the paper industry“, stressed Mrs Krzywiec. Mr Krzysztof Kawczyński - Chairman for the Committee for the Protection of the Environment in the National Chamber of Commerce introduced the new waste recycling regulation in Poland.


Several best practice cases from countries around Europe gave valuable examples to local municipalities in Poland on how to step up paper collection and recycling quality in the country. Especially the example from Aspapel – the Spanish paper industry association – showed how in a short period of time educational campaigns on paper recycling can be a very effective tool to improve recycling rates in a country.


“Paper needs to be collected separately from other waste streams to maintain a consistent quality and achieve high recycling targets and bring the current Polish recycling rate to the EU average“, explains Ulrich Leberle from the Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI).
The workshop was the kick-off of the IMPACT committment -of which CEPI is a member- aiming to achieve the European Innovation Partnernship's objectives. IMPACT partners hope to organise similar events in other countries aiming to improve their paper recycling rates in the future. CEPI is also part of a European Recovered Paper Council that has pledged to improve paper recycling in Europe.


The conference was a satellite meeting as part of a larger European Commission event on resource efficiency and the circular economy - the Greenweek. Greenweek takes place every year in Brussels and attracts thousands of participants from all over Europe with an interest in the environment.

#END#

For more information, please contact Daniela Haiduc at d.haiduc@cepi.org, mobile: +32 (0) 473562936 or Katarzyna Godlewska sp@spp.pl or Agnieszka Radziłowska ARadzilowska@um.warszawa.pl


Note to the Editor

IMPACT - Introduction and Improvement of Separate Paper Collection to avoid landfilling and incineration
The partners of IMPACT will offer municipalities best practices and advice in the separate collection of paper from the municipal waste stream (mainly households and small shops) to support them in phasing out landfilling and incineration. Targeted municipalities are in regions with paper recycling rates below 60%, particularly Poland (38.5%) and Romania (53.5%), as well as areas where commingled collection is pre-dominant such as in France and in the United Kingdom. In the second half, the project will be extended to other countries with low collection rates or predominance of comingled collection. The diversion of recyclable paper from landfilling will help local authorities meet the targets of the EU landfill directive. EU Member States highly depending on landfill have to respect a target to reduce the share of biodegradable waste going to landfill to 35% by 2020.
Webpage: www.cepi.org/impact

Greenweek
The 2014 edition of Green Week, the biggest annual conference on European environment policy it takes place in Brussels under the theme Circular Economy, Resource Efficiency & Waste. Satellite events are taking place all around in May/June 2014 at local or regional level.
All information at http://www.greenweek2014.eu/index.html
The Association of Polish Papermakers (SPP)
The Association of Polish Papermakers is an organization of scientific, technical and managerial qualities with individual and corporate members whose activities are connected with the paper and paper converting industries. an organization of scientific, technical and managerial qualities with individual and corporate members whose activities are connected with the paper and paper converting industries. The association members represent near 80% of polish paper production and significant part of corrugated board market.
The purposes of SPP activity are:
• to integrate papermakers, preserve association tradition and document papermaking history and also create professional ethics among the members, amicable solidarity and mutual remembrance,
• to represent papermakers on the forum of the governmental and local administration organs,
• to create conditions for versatile exchange of information and options on current and future needs of the paper industry and related branches, particularly concerning production quality and quantity, new products, raw materials and intermediates, machine and equipment performance, control and automation of manufacturing processes, power engineering, environmental protection, paper trade, economic, organizational and marketing issues and personnel training.
More information available at http://www.spp.pl

Warsaw municipality
Warsaw, the capital of Poland Warsaw is a major international tourist destination and an important economic hub in Central Europe. Warsaw is a green city. Since 2006, Warsaw has been hosting Recycling Days – a picnic event, during which unwanted materials, such as electronic junk, etc. is collected. In exchange for plastic bottles and used batteries one can obtain geranium seedlings, herbs or garden conifers.
Today Warsaw is revolutionizing its system of segregation, collection, treatment and recycling of waste. The new rules will mean less waste going to landfill, with far more resources being recovered and used again. The new sorting system is accompanied by a broad campaign to inform and educate the public. Warsaw is organising a multitude of environmental initiatives, as the names of selected projects prove: Festival of Trees, Earth Hour, Climate Day Picnic and Car-Free Day. In November 2013 Warsaw hosted the UN Conference on Climate Change. Organization of this summit in Poland’s capital means that Poland is holding the Presidency of the climate convention from November 2013 to November 2014. Warsaw is the only city in Poland and after Berlin, the second in Central Europe to cooperate under the C40 Large Cities Leadership Group towards Climate Change. Cooperation also takes place within the Clinton Climate Initiative organization and the Eurocities association. These activities result in the implementation of specific programs - thermo-modernization of public buildings, energy efficient street lighting, and the launching of environmentally friendly practices with regard to water, wastewater and waste management. Warsaw’s Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz is the president of Eurocities – a network for cooperation between Europe’s metropolises.

CEPI aisbl - The Confederation of European Paper Industries
The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a Brussels-based non-profit organisation regrouping the European pulp and paper industry and championing industry’s achievements and the benefits of its products. Through its 18 member countries (17 European Union members plus Norway) CEPI represents some 520 pulp, paper and board producing companies across Europe, ranging from small and medium sized companies to multi-nationals, and 950 paper mills. Together they represent 23% of world production.
Paper recycling: www.paperforrecycling.eu
Resource efficiency: www.cepi.org/resourceefficiency
Website: http://www.cepi.org/ mail@cepi.org Connect with us: @EuropeanPaper

 

 

 

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Press Release | 25 Jun.2014

Paper recycling in Europe at 71.7% - A reliable performance secures access to valuable raw material

The paper recycling rate in Europe reached 71.7% in 2013. The total amount of paper collected and recycled in the European paper sector remains stable at just over 57 million tonnes, despite decreasing paper consumption in Europe.

Recycling has increased by 45% (18 million tonnes) since 1998, the base year for the first voluntary commitment set in the European Declaration on Paper Recycling by the European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC).

The European paper recycling rate is starting to level out and keeping it at a high rate is becoming progressively more challenging. Not only are quantities changing but so are the different paper consumption patterns.

The continuing sharp decline in newspaper consumption will significantly affect overall paper recycling levels, as newspapers are traditionally one of the best recycled paper products along with corrugated boxes. Conversely, tissue and sanitary paper consumption is increasing but cannot be accepted for recycling due to hygiene reasons. Overall, 21% of paper consumption is not recyclable or collectable.

The large majority of the 11 European countries currently still under a 60% recycling rate have reported an improved performance. In parallel, 13 European countries have already exceeded the targeted 70% recycling rate. Paper fibre is now recycled an average of 3.5 times in Europe, far exceeding the world-wide average of 2.4.

“Making recycling easy and simple year after year requires a huge effort by the paper value chain, and we are pleased to report the positive results”, says ERPC chairwoman Beatrice Klose. “Despite challenging circumstances, paper recycling has continued to perform consistently well”, she concludes.

Secure access to raw materials has become an increasingly strategic economic issue in Europe. Paper recycling is truly an industry “made in Europe”. In line with EU policies, this industry should be properly safeguarded to remain so. The paper recycling sector is ready and able to add more green jobs, skills and innovations to the European circular economy.

#END#

For more information, please contact the ERPC Secretariat, Jori Ringman, at +32 2 627 49 19, +32 478 255070 (gsm), erpc@cepi.org or visit www.paperforrecycling.eu


Notes to Editor:

• 2013 ERPC Monitoring Report: http://www.paperforrecycling.eu/publications/erpc-publications
• The European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) was set up as an industry self-initiative in November 2000 to monitor progress towards meeting the paper recycling targets set out in the 2000 European Declaration on Paper Recycling. Since then the commitments in the Declaration are renewed every five years.
In 2011, the ERPC committed itself to meeting and maintaining both a voluntary recycling rate target of 70% in the EU-27 plus Switzerland and Norway by 2015 as well as qualitative targets in areas such as waste prevention, ecodesign, and research and development.
• Members of ERPC are ACE, CEPI, CITPA, EMFA, ERPA, ETS, INGEDE, INTERGRAF, FEPE. Supporters include the EuPIA, FINAT, RADTECH Europe. The European Commission, DG Environment and DG Enterprise, are permanent observers of the ERPC.
 

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Publication | 25 Jun.2014

ERPC 2013 Monitoring report

The recycling rate in Europe reached 71.7% in 2013.
The total amount of paper collected and recycled in the paper sector remains stable at just over 57 million tonnes, despite the decreasing consumption of paper in Europe. Recycling has increased by 45% (18 million tonnes) since 1998, the base year for the first voluntary commitment set in the European Declaration on Paper Recycling. In strong contrast, consumption has dropped back to the 1998 level of 80 million tonnes. A net volume of 8.3 million tonnes (14%) of the total 57 million tonnes was bought by third countries for recycling outside the commitment region of EU-27 plus Norway and Switzerland.

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