Glossary

Glossary

Here is a useful glossary with terminology often used in our industry:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Afforestation: establishment of forest plantations on land that, until then, was not classified as forest. Implies a transformation from non-forest to forest.

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B

Biodiversity: the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
Bioenergy: renewable energy made from biofuels derived from organic matter or other biological sources.
Biogeographical regions: geographical large scale reference units defined by its ecosystems, habitat types and species composition.
Biomass: as a renewable energy source, refers to living and recently dead biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production.

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C

Carbon sink: natural or manmade reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
Case materials: papers and boards mainly used in the manufacture of corrugated board. Included are kraftliner, testliner, semi-chemical fluting, and waste-based fluting (Wellenstoff). Also known as containerboard, corrugated case materials, cardboard, linerboard or corrugating medium. CEPI Harmonised Code is 300 000 000.
Chain of Custody (CoC): a wood flow accounting system applied by an enterprise to trace the flow of wood from certified forests or non-certified forests to the end product.
Chemical – Sulphite Pulp: produced by cooking wood chips in a pressure vessel in the presence of bisulphite liquor. CEPI Harmonised Code is 922 200 000
Chemical - Sulphate (or kraft) Pulp: produced by cooking wood chips in pressure vessels in the presence of a sodium hydroxide (soda) liquor. CEPI Harmonised Code is 922 100 000
Climate change: long-term significant change in the expected patterns of average weather of a specific region over an appropriately significant period of time.
Coated papers: all paper suitable for printing or other graphic purposes and coated on one or both sides with minerals such as china clay (kaolin), calcium carbonate, etc. CEPI Harmonised Code for Coated Mechanical is 212 000 000 and for Coated Woodfree is 232 000 000.
Collection: utilisation plus exports minus imports of paper for recycling.
Collection (of paper and board): separate collection of paper and paper products from industrial and commercial outlets, from households and offices for Recycling. (Collection includes transport to the sorting/processing or recycling plant/paper mill).
Collector: one who separately collects used paper and board; he may also have pre-processing (sorting, handling) transport or trade activities.
Consumer: industrial, commercial or private end-user.
Consumption (apparent): production from the defined countries (see 1.4 - page 4 of the European Declaration on Paper Recycling) plus imports from countries outside this coverage - exports from the outside.
Converter: processor of paper or board as a raw material (such as packaging, printing).

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D

Deadwood: all decaying material of trees; on the ground or standing.
Deforestation: the conversion of forest to another land use or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10 percent definition for forests.
Deinking: removal of ink and/or toner from a printed product to a high extent by means of a deinking process. This shall restore as good as possible the optical properties of the unprinted product.
Distribution (of paper and board): wholesale and retail trade of paper and paper material and products ensuring the link between the producer/converter or importer and the final consumer.

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E

Eco-label: a labelling system that verifies that consumer products are made in a way that environmental aspects are considered and negative effects are minimized.
Ecological footprint: a measure of effects from human activities on the Earth’s ecosystems.
Ecosystem services: the benefits that people or businesses obtain from different natural ecosystems and processes e.g. fresh water for drinking.

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F

Final disposal: definitive deposit of waste to landfill or incineration without energy recovery.
Forest Area: area with a minimum 10% minimum crown cover. The definition includes both natural forests and forest plantations. It excludes stands of trees established primarily for agricultural production.
Forest certification: a system for verifying that a forest is being managed according to the requirements of a forest management standard.
Forest management: a range of human interventions that affect forest ecosystems.
Forest restoration: renewing a degraded, damaged, or destroyed forest ecosystem through active human intervention.
Forest structure: variation of vertical layers of vegetation at forest stand level and in successional stages at landscape level.

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G

Genetically modified trees: trees whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

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I

Indigenous tree species: native tree species in their natural distribution area.
Invasive species: native and non-native species (e.g. plants or animals) that adversely affect the habitats they colonize economically, environmentally or ecologically.

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L

LULUCF: Land use, land-use change and forestry

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N

Native woodland: an area of indigenous tree species in their natural distribution area
Native tree species: indigenous tree species in their natural distribution area.
Natural disturbance: the natural processes of fire, wind, snow and ice, insects and diseases that affect forest ecosystems.
Natural forest: a forest composed of indigenous trees and not classified as a forest plantation.
Near threatened species: a taxon is Near Threatened when it does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.

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O

Other papers mainly for packaging purposes: this category embraces all paper and board mainly for packaging purposes other than those listed above. CEPI Harmonised Code is 600 000 000.
Other paper and board: includes cigarette papers and filter papers, as well as gypsum liners and special papers for waxing, insulating, roofing, asphalting, and other specific applications or treatments. CEPI Harmonised Code is 800 000 000.
Other Pulp: pulp produced from fibres other than wood, such as sugar cane bagasse, wheat straw, kenaf, cotton rags and hemp.

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P

Packer/filler: user of packaging material to distribute a product into marketable units.
Paper: term used to cover all grades of paper and board.
Paper and Board Consumption: production + imports from outside CEPI - exports to outside CEPI
Paper Grades: newsprint: paper mainly used for printing newspapers. CEPI Harmonised Code is 100 000 000
Paper Manufacturer: producer of paper and/or board.
Paper Merchant: one who primarly buys, processes and sells paper for recycling; he may be actively involved in its collection.
Paper for recycling: used paper and board separately collected and in general pre-processed according to the European Standard List of Recovered Paper and Board Grades (EN 643).
Paper product: general term used to cover all paper and board-based converted products.
Paper value chain: all parties, linked directly or indirectly in value creation, from paper and board manufacturer to collector/merchant of used paper and board products.
Plantation forest: forest stands established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either of introduced species, or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which are of one or two species at planting, even age class, regular spacing.
Printer: manufacturer of printed products using paper or board as a printing surface ( Converter).
Protected species: species that are protected by law at local, national or regional level.
Publisher: one who publishes (owns and brings to the market) products which are printed on paper.
Pulp Consumption: production + Imports from outside CEPI - Exports to outside CEPI
Pulp Grades
: mechanical - Stone groundwood: pulp produced by grinding wood into relatively short fibres. CEPI Harmonised Code is 923 000 000

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R

Recovered paper: outdated term used for Paper for recycling.
Recyclability: design, manufacturing and converting of paper-based products in such a way as to enable a high quality recycling of fibres and other materials in a manufacturing process in compliance – where appropriate – with current standards in the Community: as a minimum, recyclability requires that sufficient information is exchanged for appropriate risk management and safe re-use of fibres.
Recycling: reprocessing of used paper in a production process into new paper and board.
Recycling rate: the ratio between recycling of used paper, including net trade of paper for recycling, and paper and board consumption.
Reforestation: establishment of forest plantations on temporarily unstocked lands that are considered as forest.
Retention trees: single trees or tree groups left behind during logging to promote biodiversity by providing habitat for different species, long term age and structural diversity and a source of future deadwood habitat.

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S

Sanitary and Household papers: this covers a wide range of tissue and other hygienic papers for use in households or commercial and industrial premises. CEPI Harmonised Code is 700 000 000.
Semi-chemical pulp: produced in a two-stage process which involves partial digestion with chemicals, followed by mechanical treatment in a disc refiner. CEPI Harmonised Code is 921 000 000
Semi-natural forests: forest or other wooded land of native species, established through planting, seeding or assisted natural regeneration.
Sustainable forest management: the stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfil, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems. (Resolution H1, Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests in Europe, Helsinki, 1993)

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T

Thermo-mechanical pulp: produced in a thermo-mechanical process where wood particles are softened by steam before entering a pressurised refiner. CEPI Harmonised Code is 923 400 000
Trader: one who buys and sells paper for recycling without any operational collection or processing activity.

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U

Utilisation rate: percentage of paper for recycling utilisation compared to the total paper & board production.

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V

Valuable habitats: biotopes which are identified to be valuable for biodiversity.

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W

Waste: any substance or object which holder discards or intends or is required to discard.
Wood procurement chain: the steps in wood supply from buying the wood through to logging and transport to the mill.
Wrappings (up to 125 g/m²): papers whose main use is wrapping or packaging made from any combination of virgin or recovered fibres, bleached or unbleached. Included are sack kraft, other wrapping krafts, sulphite and grease-proof papers. CEPI Harmonised Code is 500 000 000.

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